high FODMAP foods to avoid list

High FODMAP Foods to Avoid List

New here?  Welcome.  You’ve landed on my blog where I teach people about the low-FODMAP diet, an elimination diet which helps ease symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO).  If you’re tired of IBS symptoms intruding on your life, there’s good news.  The low-FODMAP diet is an evidence-based diet that helps relieve symptoms of IBS without the use of drugs.  Below you will find my list of foods that are high in FODMAPs.  But first, what are FODMAPs and what is this diet all about?

The low-FODMAP diet eliminates FODMAPs, which are short-chain carbohydrates (sugars and fibers) that are malabsorbed and easily fermented in the small intestine. The fermented food then moves on to the large intestine, where bacteria have a feast, causing gas, bloating, distention, constipation and/or diarrhea.

What are FODMAPs?

FODMAPs are a collection of molecules found in the foods we eat everyday.  The acronym FODMAP stands for:

Oligosaccharides (Fructans and Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS))
Disaccharides (Lactose)
Monosaccharides (excess Fructose)
Polyols (eg. Sorbitol, Mannitol, Maltitol, Xylitol and Isomalt)

If you are following the Low-FODMAP diet, you will want to avoid all foods high in FODMAPs.  They include: fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, excess fructose and polyols.  FODMAP experts say the term of the diet should last anywhere from 2-6 weeks for the Elimination Phase and then the Reintroduction/Challenge Phase requires another couple of weeks.  You can learn more about the diet by checking out my most popular Top Posts & Pages (listed at right).

Here is a short list of foods that contain FODMAPs:

  • Oligosaccharides – (fructans) Garlic, onions, wheat, inulin, artichokes; (galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS]) legume beans, lentils, chickpeas
  • Disaccharides – Milk, condensed and evaporated milk, milk powder, ice cream, yogurt, cheese that is unripe
  • Monosaccharides – Honey, agave, apples, mangoes, pear, watermelon, High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)
  • Polyols: apples, avocado, cherries, nectarines, prunes, mushrooms, sorbitol or other sugar alcohols that end in “ol” like mannitol, xylitol, maltitol as well as isomalt.

If you have already taken hydrogen breath tests and know you can completely absorb fructose, lactose, OR polyols, you do not have to negate them from your diet, but can as an extra precaution during the elimination phase.

High FODMAP Foods to Avoid

All foods included in this list are HIGH in FODMAPs and should be avoided during the Elimination Phase, the first phase of the low-FODMAP diet. If you see a serving size next to a food on this list it means that in a smaller serving it is low in FODMAPs. When that is the case, please refer to the Low-FODMAPs List for the appropriate low-FODMAP serving size.


  • Apples (fresh or dried)
  • Applesauce
  • Apricots (fresh or dried)
  • Asian pears
  • Blackberries
  • Boysenberries
  • Cherries
  • Currants
  • Dates
  • Feijoa
  • Figs (fresh or dried)
  • Goji berries (dried)
  • Grapefruit
  • Lychee
  • Mangoes (fresh or dried)
  • Nectarines
  • Peaches (all)
  • Pears (dried or nashi, packham-firm or ripe)
  • Persimmon
  • Pineapple (dried only)
  • Plums
  • Prunes
  • Raisins
  • Sultanas
  • Tamarillo
  • Watermelon


  • Artichokes (Jerusalem, globe)
  • Asparagus (1 spear, moderate)
  • Beetroot
  • Cabbage, savoy
  • Cassava
  • Cauliflower
  • Cho cho
  • Choko
  • Corn, sweet
  • Garlic
  • Karela
  • Leeks
  • Mushroom, button
  • Onions, shallots (all including onion powder)
  • Peas, snow
  • Peas, sugar snap
  • Peas, thawed
  • Scallion, Spring Onion bulbs (only use green tips)
  • Snow peas
  • Sugar snap peas
  • Taro

Legumes, Beans

  • Baked beans
  • Black beans, boiled
  • Borlotti beans
  • Broad beans
  • Four bean mix
  • Haricot beans
  • Kidney beans
  • Chickpeas and Lentils
  • LOW as long as they are canned, drained and rinsed – canning helps to leech out FODMAPs.   Refer to Low-FODMAPs List for serving size.
  • Lima beans (1/2 cup)
  • Mung beans (1/2 cup)
  • Red kidney beans (boiled)
  • Soya beans (boiled)
  • Split peas (boiled)

Vegetarian Substitutes

  • Falafel
  • Lentil burger
  • Mince (containing onion)

Nuts, Seeds

  • Almonds (20 nuts) -Refer to Low-FODMAPs List for LOW serving size.
  • Pistachios
  • Cashews


  • Meats containing onion, garlic, onion or garlic powders, dehydrated powders, bread crumbs, dried fruits.
  • Marinades/sauces/gravies when prepared with meats may contain high-FODMAPs

Dairy, Cheese

  • Buttermilk
  • Condensed milk
  • Cream cheese (2 tablespoons, moderate)
  • Crème fraîche
  • Custard
  • Ice cream
  • Kefir

Milk, Dairy

  • a2
  • Evaporated
  • Regular
  • Full cream
  • Cow, full cream, reduced fat, skim
  • Goat, full cream
  • Skim
  • Milk Alternatives
    • Oat
    • Rice
    • Soy (soy beans/sweetened/ unsweetened)
  • Milk powder (milk solids)
  • Pudding
  • Soft cheeses
    • More than 2 tablespoons is HIGH
  • Yogurt
    • Indian
    • Low-fat
    • Regular
    • Flavored
    • Made from cow/goat/sheep’s milk


Chocolate when consumed in high amounts can irritate the gut due to its fat, sugar and caffeine content. * Refer to Low-FODMAPs List for serving sizes.

  • Fruit bar (1/2 bar)

Snacks, Biscuits & Cookies

  • Bar, cereal, wheat-based
  • Bar, granola, oat and honey (2 bars)
  • Bar, muesli-based with fruit (1/2 bar)
  • Biscuit/cookie, chocolate chip (2)
  • Biscuit, fruit filled
  • Cookies, chocolate crème sandwich (U.S., 1 cookie)
  • Corn thins, flavored, sour cream and chives (4)
  • Rice cakes, flavored, sour cream and chives (4)
  • Rye crispbread (1)

Breads, Cakes, Flours       

  • Breads
  • Gluten-free, multigrain (U.S., 2 slices)
  • Gluten-free, wholegrain, sweetened with pear juice (U.S., 1 slice)
  • Multi-grain, sprouted (U.S., 2 slices)
  • Naan or roti
  • Oatmeal (U.S., 1 slice)
  • Pumpernickel (1 slice)
  • Raisin toast
  • Rye, rye dark, rye sourdough
  • Sourdough, kamut, wholemeal
  • Spelt, 100% spelt flour (2 slices)
  • Wheat, 100% whole wheat (U.S., 1 slice)
  • Wheat, high fiber (U.S., 1 slice)
  • Wheat, multigrain (2 slices)
  • Wheat, white (2 slices)
  • Wheat, white (U.S., 2 slices)
  • Wheat, white (Norway, 1 slice)
  • Wheat, wholegrain (2 slices)
  • Wheat, wholegrain (U.S., 2 slices)
  • Wheat, wholemeal (2 slices)
  • Wheat, wholemeal (Norway, 1 slices)
  • Wheat, wholemeal and oatmeal (U.S., 1 slice)


Wheat-based or made with other high-FODMAP flours below or including any other high-FODMAPs (like dried fruits, honey, agave, etc.):

  • Breadcrumbs
  • Cakes
  • Cookies
  • Croissants
  • Muffins
  • Pastries containing wheat/rye


  • Almond, meal (1/2 cup)
  • Khorasan (kamut) wholewheat flour
  • Amaranth
  • Barley
  • Chickpea flour (in small amounts only)
  • Couscous
  • Durum
  • Einkorn, organic
  • Emmer
  • Lupin
  • Lentil flour (in small amounts)
  • Multigrain flour
  • Pea flour (in small amounts)
  • Rye
  • Spelt, organic, white or wholemeal
  • Soy flour (in small amounts)
  • Triticale
  • Wheat bran
  • Wheat flour
  • Wheat germ

Grains & Pastas

  • Barley, pearl
  • Bourghal, cooked (1/2 cup)
  • Bran, wheat, processed and unprocessed (1 tablespoon)
  • Cous cous, rice and corn, cooked (1/2 cup)
  • Cous cous, wheat, cooked (1/2 cup)
  • Freekeh, cooked (1/4 cup)
  • Noodles, wheat
  • Pasta, spelt, cooked (1 cup)
  • Pasta, wheat, cooked (1 cup)
  • Gnocchi, wheat
  • Granola, fruit and nut
  • Rice crisps (U.S.,1 cup)


  • Flakes of corn (U.S.,1 cup)
  • Flakes of wheat, corn, rice, oats, dried fruit, nuts (1/2 cup)
  • Flakes, barley or spelt or gluten-free rice flakes with psyllium
  • Muesli, plain, or free of yeast, wheat, gluten, dairy, nut (all HIGH)
  • Oatmeal (fine, organic, Denmark, 1 cup)
  • Wheat-based multi-grain breakfast cereal
  • Wheat bran, pellets
  • Whole wheat grain biscuit


  • Agave nectar
  • Honey
  • Sugar alcohols
    • Isomalt
    • Maltitol
    • Mannitol
    • Sorbitol
    • Xylitol
  • High fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
  • Corn syrup solids
  • Fructose
  • Pear juice
  • Fruit juice concentrate


Many condiments are made with FODMAPs, but you can make your own at home! Refer to recipes in Chapter 13 for ideas. Always read ingredient labels for any condiments you purchase:

  • Chutneys
  • Gravies
  • Chicken, vegetable, beef stock
  • Vegetable and beef bouillon cubes
  • Dressings
  • Sauces
  • Brand-made relishes
  • Oil-based sauces and condiments

Drinks, Juices

  • More than a 1/2 cup of any fruit juice
  • Apple
  • Apple and Raspberry cordial
  • Berry fruit blend (from juice bar)
  • Pear
  • Tropical and mango juices
  • Orange
    • 98% reconstituted
    • 99% blend
    • Orange cordials


  • Chicory-based coffee substitutes
  • Espresso decaf or regular
    • Made with cow or soy milk (soy beans)
  • Instant decaf or regular
    • Made with cow or soy milk (soy beans)

Teas – (250 ml)

  • Black
    • Strong made with soy milk (soy beans)
  • Dandelion
    • Strong made with water
  • Fennel tea
    • Strong or weak made with water
  • Chamomile tea
    • Strong or weak made with water
  • Chai tea
    • Strong made with water, cow’s milk, low-FODMAP milk alternatives, soy milk (soy beans)
  • Herbal tea
    • Strong made with water
  • Oolong tea
    • Strong or weak made with water


  • Coconut water fresh (250 ml)
  • Coconut water packaged (250 ml)
  • Carob powder (for drinking)


  • Rum
  • Wine, sweet, dessert, “sticky”

Diet, Sugar-free, Low Carb

Label warnings that say: “Excess consumption may have a laxative effect” and other products containing polyol additives as artificial sweeteners:

  • Sorbitol
  • Mannitol
  • Maltitol
  • Xylitol
  • Polydextrose
  • Isomalt
  • Mints
  • Candy
  • Desserts

Here is a breakdown of which foods are high in fructose, polyols and lactose:

  • Excess Free Fructose = EFF
  • High-Polyol Foods = HPF
  • High-Lactose Foods = HLF


Apples or applesauce, apricots, Asian pears, blackberries, boysenberries, cherries, figs, mangoes, nectarines, peaches, pears, persimmon, plums, prunes, tamarillo, watermelon, white peaches

  • EFF – Apples, Asian pears, boysenberries, cherries, figs, mangoes, pears, tamarillo, watermelon
  • HPF – Apples, apricots, Asian pears, blackberries, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums, prunes, watermelon


Artichokes (all), asparagus, cauliflower, garlic, leeks, mushrooms, onions (all onions including onion powder), scallions (only the green tips), shallots, snow peas, sugar snap peas, legume beans (eg. baked beans, kidney beans, bortolotti beans), lentils, chickpeas.

  • EFF – Artichokes, asparagus, sugar snap peas
  • HPF – Cauliflower, mushrooms, snow peas

*Learn more about all legumes and serving sizes by reading this post Low-FODMAP Servings for Legumes


If you do not malabsorb lactose then you do not need to restrict these foods.  Ask your dietitian about testing for lactose malabsorption.

All HLF – Ice cream, regular milk, goat’s or sheep’s milk, yogurt (made from cow, goat or sheep’s milk), milk powder (milk solids), pudding, evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk and soft cheeses (amounts greater than 1/2 C) -cottage cheese, cream cheese, creme fraiche, mascarpone, ricotta.


Agave nectar, honey, sugar alcohols like sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol; high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup solids, fructose, pear juice, fruit juice concentrate.

  • EFF – Agave nectar, high-fructose corn syrup, fructose, fruit juice concentrate, pear juice, honey
  • HPF – sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol, polydextrose, isomalt

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